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How to Form Plurals in English: Rules and Examples

Creating plurals in English can be straightforward, but there are some rules and exceptions to keep in mind. Here's a basic guide:

1. Add -s to form the plural: For most nouns, simply add -s to the singular form.

   - Example: cat → cats, book → books, table → tables

2. Add -es for nouns ending in -ch, -s, -sh, -x, or -z: When a noun ends in one of these letters, add -es to form the plural.

   - Example: box → boxes, church → churches, buzz → buzzes

3. Change -y to -ies if the noun ends in a consonant before the -y: If a noun ends in a consonant followed by -y, change the -y to -ies.

   - Example: city → cities, baby → babies, party → parties

4. Add -s to nouns ending in a vowel followed by -y: If a noun ends in a vowel followed by -y, simply add -s.

   - Example: key → keys, boy → boys, toy → toys

5. For some words ending in -o, add -es: Nouns ending in -o can add -es to form the plural, although many also accept just -s.

   - Example: potato → potatoes, tomato → tomatoes

6. Irregular plurals: Some nouns have irregular plural forms that do not follow these rules.

   - Example: man → men, woman → women, child → children, foot → feet

7. No change: Some nouns are the same in both singular and plural form.

   - Example: sheep, deer, fish

Remember, English has many exceptions and irregularities, so it's always a good idea to consult a dictionary if you're unsure about the plural form of a word.


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